L’inflation scolaire – Marie Duru-Bellat

L'inflation scolaire : Les désillusions de la méritocratieDans L’inflation Scolaire, Marie Duru-Bellat montre habilement à quel point la volonté française d’élévation du niveau d’études “à tout prix” est dommageable aussi bien pour les élèves que pour les entreprises, car la conséquence principale est de provoquer une baisse de la valeur des diplômes – d’où le titre.

Depuis l’après-guerre, on n’a cessé d’augmenter le niveau d’éducation et d’enseignement, avec des résultats plus que positifs, notamment une main-d’oeuvre toujours plus qualifiée. Néanmoins, vu le niveau moyen d’enseignement obtenu ces dernières années, est-ce que le pousser encore plus loin a un sens? 80% d’une classe d’âge au baccalauréat; 50% d’une classe d’âge diplômée de l’enseignement supérieur; toujours plus, mais pour répondre à quels besoins? Non seulement il n’est pas prouvé que les entreprises auront massivement besoin de personnel à un niveau toujours plus élevé, mais en plus, on voit déjà que le chômage chez les diplômés de l’enseignement supérieur est élevé. Le seul but de cette élévation sans fin du niveau d’études est-il de gagner une paix sociale (temporaire), en limitant les entrées sur le marché du travail? Au risque de provoquer une augmentation du chômage ou des tension sur les salaires?

Pour répondre à ces questions, Marie Duru-Bellat donne de nombreuses idées tout au long du livre, toujours précises et bien documentées.

Un second axe du livre porte sur la schizophrénie de l’enseignement supérieur (et de l’enseignement en général) en France: pousser un maximum d’élèves aussi loin que possible dans les études, peu importe lesquelles, et dans le même temps, afficher un penchant pour la logique de la sélection, penchant particulièrement marqué avec les grandes écoles.

On a ainsi une grande partie des élèves qui s’engage dans des études supérieures parce que cela doit leur permettre d’obtenir une meilleure situation professionnelle (on le leur a garanti durant toutes leurs études précédentes), alors qu’en bout de course, le marché de l’emploi n’absorbera que les personnes adaptées à l’offre de travail, en fonction de l’adéquation de leurs diplômes avec les postes ouverts.

Un chiffre m’a particulièrement impressionné à la lecture du livre: les effectifs en STAPS sont passés de 11 600 étudiants en 1990 à 47 700 en 2003. Je ne vois pas à quelle demande future tous ces diplômés vont pouvoir répondre, surtout en considérant que le nombre d’enfants et de jeunes ne va pas augmenter, alors que ce sont eux qui ont le plus besoin de ces diplômés en STAPS.

Cette dualité entre toujours plus d’études pour tout le monde et toujours plus de sélectivité fait froid dans le dos, compte tenu des déceptions croissantes qu’elle génère auprès des jeunes. On comprend mieux le décrochage entre le monde du travail et le monde de l’enseignement; cf. les manifestations anti-CPE, pendant lesquelles de nombreux jeunes affichaient leur peur du monde du travail, et leur envie d’être fonctionnaire (75% d’entre eux souhaitent acquérir ce statut, car il assure la protection sociale la plus évidente).

Enfin, Marie Duru-Bellat monte à quel point il est critique de ne pas penser l’enseignement comme unique moyen d’insertion dans la société et la vie adulte, mais bien comme un vecteur de savoirs: il faut dissocier l’aspect “enseignement / transmission des savoirs” de l’aspect “orientation / insertion dans la vie active”.

Après tout, est-ce bien raisonnable qu’en France, le diplôme obtenu à 20-24 ans détermine autant la situation économique et sociale d’une personne? L’enseignement initial est une condition nécessaire, mais pas suffisante. Les pays anglo-saxons, notamment (mais pas seulement), accordent de l’importance au diplôme surtout en début de carrière. Arrivé à 40-50 ans, quel est l’intérêt de savoir que la personne a fait telle école ou telle faculté, alors qu’elle a passé quasiment cinq fois plus de temps en entreprise? Le mérite professionnel acquis au fil du temps n’a-t-il pas assez de valeur? Il devient important de recadrer le rôle de l’enseignement et de réaffirmer les autres acteurs du développement social des enfants que sont la famille, les associations, la vie publique, etc.
—L’inflation scolaire, les désillusions de la méritocratie, par Marie Duru-Bellat: un très bon livre, documenté et instructif, publié à La République des Idées, chez Seuil.

Pour acheter ce livre sur amazon.fr, cliquez ici: L’inflation scolaire : Les désillusions de la méritocratie.

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