Le capitalisme est-il moral? – André Comte-Sponville

Le capitalisme est-il moral? - André Comte-SponvilleDans Le capitalisme est-il moral?, livre issu d’une série de conférences qu’il a données sur ce thème, André Comte-Sponville propose une grille de lecture permettant de dire si le capitalisme, système économique dominant sans partage depuis la fin du bloc soviétique et l’ouverture de la Chine, est moral.

Le livre est articulé autour de deux parties principales: une version synthétisée et rédigée du texte des conférences, puis un ensemble de questions/réponses échangées durant les conférences, qui viennent éclairer et compléter l’argumentation de la première partie.

Avant de répondre à la question principale sur la moralité du capitalisme, André Comte-Sponville prend le temps de définir des limites entre différents types de concepts, qu’il appelle des ordres, au sens pascalien du terme [1]:

  1. l’ordre technico-scientifique
  2. l’ordre juridico-politique
  3. l’ordre de la morale
  4. l’ordre de l’éthique / de l’amour

Ces quatre ordres recouvrent des domaines et des concepts bien distincts, indépendants. Il faut bien sûr prendre les quatre ordres ensemble en considération, mais il reste indispensable de bien les distinguer, afin de comprendre leur logique propre et les influences qu’ils ont les uns sur les autres.

Par exemple, on ne peut voter une loi obligeant à aimer son prochain: l’amour est par essence dépourvu de logique (ne fait pas partie de l’ordre 1), ne peut être encadré par la loi (ordre 2), et transcende les valeurs morales (ordre 3).

La réponse à la question titre est donc limpide: non. Le capitalisme est un système économique, technique, et par là même, dépourvu de toute considération morale ou éthique. Le capitalisme est amoral, et non moral ou immoral.

Les seules entités capables de faire preuve de moralité sont les personnes qui agissent au sein du système économique, et cela relève même de leur devoir d’essayer de dégager des comportements moraux.

Il s’agit cependant d’un équilibre toujours précaire, car si les hommes aspirent naturellement au haut des valeurs, les groupes et ensembles sont eux naturellement inclinés vers le bas (hiérarchie ascendante des primautés contre enchaînement descendant des primats).

Etant bien en peine de résumer plus en détail ce livre, je ne peux que vous recommander chaudement de le lire, et vous livre la conclusion de l’auteur: il n’y a donc que les hommes qui peuvent (doivent!) toujours lutter pour aller vers le haut, avec amour, lucidité et courage. Que ces trois choses « puissent suffire, c’est ce qui n’est jamais garanti, et qui rend toute suffisance dérisoire. Mais là où ils manquent, comment pourrions-nous réussir? »

Point annexe à l’articulation générale du livre mais particulièrement clair grâce à cette distinction des ordres: les difficultés actuelles causées par la mondialisation/globalisation. En effet, André Comte-Sponville explique que nous sommes actuellement confrontés à une situation de déséquilibre entre l’ordre technico-scientifique (en particulier sa composante économique), fortement globalisé, et l’ordre juridico-politique, toujours limité à l’échelle de chaque état/nation. En effet, sans règle juridique ou politique à l’échelle mondiale, comment encadrer correctement l’activité économique? L’OMC et les Nations-Unies ne sont pas des systèmes juridiques ou politiques achevés, dans le sens où ils n’ont aucune souveraineté réelle; l’Union Européenne, quant à elle, n’est qu’un début, à l’échelle régionale.

Le capitalisme est-il moral, par André Comte-Sponville: une grille de lecture passionnante et éclairante sur l’homme et la société en général, publié au Livre de Poche.

Pour acheter ce livre sur amazon.fr, cliquez ici: Le capitalisme est-il moral?

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[1] Extrait de la note du livre sur ce concept: Un ordre, chez Pascal, est « un ensemble homogène et autonome, régi par des lois, se rangeant à un certain modèle, d’où dérive son indépendance par rapport à un ou plusieurs autres ordres » Les trois ordres de Pascal sont l’ordre du corps, l’ordre de l’esprit ou de la raison, enfin l’ordre du cœur ou de la charité.

13 réponses à “Le capitalisme est-il moral? – André Comte-Sponville”

  1. Nicolas Says:

    L’hallu ! Je viens de vivre la publication de ton billet en live ! J’étais devant mon Google Reader. Evenement rarissime. Je m’empresse de le lire

  2. Laurent Leca Says:

    Amusant, cet effet de synchro publication/découverte. Content aussi de voir que tu ne m’as pas sorti de ton aggrégateur vu la faible fréquence de mes publications! :)

  3. Nicolas Says:

    et là je m’en inquiète ^^ bientôt un an d’absence en ligne et je te garde toujours dans mon aggrégateur !

  4. Laurent Leca Says:

    Damned, 1 an! Je vais devoir m’activer et trier mes brouillons! :)

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