nano-usines: transformer la valeur des biens

Le concept de nano-usines renvoie à la possibilité de construire des objets complexes à partir des briques les plus petites accessibles: les atomes et les molécules. Ainsi, plutôt que d’obtenir un produit fini en assemblant différents composants déjà produits ailleurs, le concept de nano-production consiste à créer le produit fini en partant de « rien » ou presque: des atomes de carbone, de l’énergie, et d’innombrables manipulations invisibles.

Ce concept est en passe de devenir réalité, avec la mise à disposition prochaines de nano-fabriques accessibles aux particuliers, qui fonctionneraient certainement comme le montre ce film repéré par internetactu.net:

Vidéo : comment fonctionne une nano-usine ?

vidéo nano-usine - nano factory movie

vidéo nano-usine - nano factory movie

Ainsi, dans le film, on voit un personnage pousser le bouton d’une boite grise approximativement de la taille d’un micro-onde. Cela déclenche, au niveau moléculaire, la mise en route de la “nano-usine” qui va d’abord recueillir les molécules nécessaires à sa tâche. Puis, à un second niveau, elle assemble ces dernières en blocs de construction, puis connecte à son tour ces blocs ; etc. jusqu’à la fabrication du produit fini. A la fin du film, le personnage récupère dans la boîte un micro-ordinateur portable tout neuf, construit avec une précision moléculaire !

Ce type d’appareils remet en cause la notion de valeur telle qu’on la considère aujourd’hui, tant les modifications du processus de production sont importantes.

dématérialisation de la production

En effet, la nano-production ouvre en grand la possibilité de construire tout et n’importe quoi à partir d’éléments très basiques. Une fois les plans et schémas de conception d’un produit défini, il suffit de programmer l’usine en fonction de ce plan, et de l’alimenter en énergie et en briques élémentaires (qu’on pourrait très facilement obtenir en « démontant » des produits mis au rebut, avec des nano-usines chargées du recyclage).

Pour un exemple à la fois crédible et amusant des changements radicaux qu’offriraient (offriront?) de telles méthodes de production, je vous encourage à lire « Aube d’acier« , de Charles Stross. Dans ce livre, une économie type fin 19e / début 20e siècle est totalement bouleversée par l’arrivée d’une civilisation avancée, cette dernière distribuant des nano-usines à qui en fait la demande.

transformation de la notion de la valeur

On imagine facilement que si tout un chacun peut accéder à de telles nano-usines, les biens et produits finis n’ont donc plus réellement de valeur en eux-mêmes. Ce sont les plans de conception qui représentent la valeur. Le plan vaut plus que le produit fini.

Ainsi, Neal Stephenson, dans « L’Âge de diamant« , construit son intrigue autour de la perte des plans de conception d’un objet très important. Peu importe l’objet en lui-même; ce qui est critique, c’est de contrôler les plans de conception. D’ailleurs, même le diamant n’a plus de valeur, vu qu’il est aussi facile d’en synthétiser que d’imprimer un document (une simple masse de carbone organisée de façon structurée).

contrôle de la propriété intellectuelle & piratage

Toute la valeur résidant dans de l’immatériel (plans et éléments de propriété intellectuelle), le contrôle et le piratage de ces informations aura la plus grande importance. On peut facilement anticiper une accélération du piratage et du partage de telles informations, poussant d’autant plus les différents acteurs économiques à réfléchir à de nouveaux modèles économiques, qu’il s’agisse de coopération ou de coercition. A mon avis, les discussions actuelles autour des produits culturels seront risibles en comparaison.

  • Doit-on accepter la diffusion de nano-usines? Comment la société et l’économie pourra-t-elle se réorganiser?
  • Les anciens clivages disparaîtront certainement en grande partie… mais pour être remplacés par quoi? Est-il plus facile d’asseoir une domination sur des biens matériels ou sur des informations?
  • Comment sera contrôlé (ou libéré) l’accès aux ressources (éléments primaires + énergie)? Ouvertes à tous, sur le modèle de la distribution d’eau et d’électricité actuelle?

Sources:

  • La catégorie Nanotechnologie d’InternetActu.net: articles d’informations, éléments de réflexion et appel au débat citoyen autour des nanotechnologies.
  • Livres: « L’Âge de diamant« , de Neal Stephenson, et « Aube d’acier« , de Charles Stross, pour des visions amusantes et effrayantes des possibilités offertes par l’usage des nanotechnologies à grande échelle (voire grand public).

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